Over three decades after market-oriented structural reforms termed “Washington Consensus” policies were first implemented, we revisit the evidence on policy adoption
and the effects of these policies on socio-economic performance in sub-Saharan African countries. We focus on three key ubiquitous reform policies around privatization,
fiscal discipline, and trade openness and document significant improvements in economic performance for reformers over the past two decades. Following initial declines in
per capita economic growth over the 1980s and 1990s, reform adopters experienced notable increases in per capita real GDP growth in the post–2000 period. We
complement aggregate analysis with four country case studies that highlight important lessons for effective reform. Notably, the ability to implement pro-poor policies
alongside market-oriented reforms played a central role in successful policy performance.
Archibong, Belinda, Brahima Coulibaly, and Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala.
“Washington Consensus Reforms and Lessons for Economic Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa.”
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
International Lending and Debt Problems
National Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign Debt
Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises and Nonprofit Institutions; Privatization; Contracting Out
Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development